WHO IS CHE GUEVARA?
Ernesto Che Guevara was born on June 14 in Rosario, an important town in Argentina. At the age of two Che had his first asthma attack, a disease which he later suffered a great deal while fighting against Batista troops in Sierra Maestra, and which did not let go of him till he was shot to death by Barrientos’ troops in the forests of Bolivia.
His father Ernesto Guevara Lynch, an engineer, was from a family of Irish descent, and his mother, Clia dela Sena, was an Irish-Spanish descent. When Che was three his family moved to Buenos Aires. Later, his asthma attacks had gotten so worse that the doctors advised him for a drier climate. Hence once again Guevara family moved, this time to Cordoba. Guavaras were a typical bourgeois family, and in terms of their political inclinations they were known to be liberal closer to left. During the Spanish civil war they had supported the Republicans. In time their financial situation worsened. Che started Dean Funes high school where he was being educated in English. In the meanwhile, he was also learning French from his mother. At the age of fourteen Che started reading Freud, he especially loved French poetry, and he had a great passion for Boudelaire’s works. When he was sixteen, he became an admirer of Neruda.
In 1944 Guevara family moved to Buenos Aires. They were having serious financial problems. Che started working while he was a student. He registered to medical school. In the early years of his study at the medical school he traveled throughout the northern and western Argentina, studying on leprosy and tropical diseases in the villages.
In his last year at the school, Che went on trip through the Latin America by motorbike with his friend Alberto Granadas. This gave him the chance to get to know better the exploited villagers of the Latin America. Che graduated from medical school as a doctor in March 1953 and decided to work in a leper colony in Venezuela. He was on his way to Venezuela when he was put to jail in Peru because of his earlier publication on the natives. When got out, he stayed in Ecuador for a while, where he met Ricardo Rojo, a lawyer. Meeting Ricardo turned out to be a turning point in Che’s life. He changed his mind of going to Venezuela, and instead went to Guatemala with Ricardo Rojo. When revolutionary Arbenz government was overthrown by a rightist coup, he took refuge in Argentina embassy. Soon afterword he joined the resistance he was forced to leave the Embassy. When it became too dangerous for him to stay in Guatemala, he went to Mexico. During his stay in Guatemala he had met Fidel Castro’s brother Raul as well as many Cuban exiles. In Mexico, he met Fidel Castro and his friends, and joined the Cuban revolutionaries. Later, he left for Cuba onboard the ship Granma and took part in the front lines till the end of the war. After the Revolution he, Colonel Ernesto Che Guevara, was assigned to the command of fort la Cabana in Havana. In 1959 he was given Cuban citizenship. Later he married a fellow comrade Aleida March. He was assigned to the presidency of the Institute of National Agricultural Reform, and of the National Bank of Cuba in 1959, by which he was given the financial responsibilities of the country.
In February 23rd, 1961, the Revolutionary Government of Cuba assigned Che as the head of newly established Ministry of Industry. However, during the Playa Giran battle he was again called for the command of the fort.
In the following years, his many visits to underdeveloped countries provided Che with a closer understanding of the exploited nations and the imperialists. This awakened the rebel in him. He decided to organize the peoples of other Latin American countries. In September of 1965, he left for the unknown countries. In October 3rd, 1965, Fidel Castro read Che’s famous farewell to the people of Cuba.
…And the death caught up with him near Higueras in Bolivia. He was surrounded by Barrientos’ troops on the night of October 7th, 1967. Heavily wounded from his leg, and he was locked up in a school in Higueras. Never he bowed to anyone. Nine bullets fired by Mario Turan, a murderer for Barrientos.
…Che died on October 9th , 1967.
CHE GUEVARA KÝMDÝR?
Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna , 14 Haziran 1928’de Arjantin’in Rosario þehrinde doðdu. Devrimci bir ailesi vardý. Henüz iki yaþýndayken daha sonraki gerilla yaþamýnda kendisine büyük bir dert olan astým hastalýðýna yakalandý. Ýlkokulu Alta Gracia’da, ortaokul ve liseyi de Cordoba’da tamamladý. Lise yýllarýnda Marksist düþüncelerle tanýþtý. Guevara ailesi 1944’de Buenos Aires’e taþýndý. Che burada týp fakültesine kaydoldu. Ayný zamanda bir çok iþte çalýþýp ailesine katkýda bulunuyordu.
1951’de týp öðrenimine ara vererek, bir arkadaþýyla birlikte Latin Amerika kýtasýný daha yakýndan tanýmak için motosikletle yolculuða çýktý. Gördüðü yerlerdeki insanlarýn ezilmiþliði, sömürü ve zulüm altýndaki yaþayýþlarý O’nu çok etkiledi. Düzene karþý savaþ düþüncesi artýk yavaþ yavaþ Che’nin beynine yerleþmektedir. Bir yýldan fazla bir süre dolaþtýktan sonra Buenos Aires’e geri döndü. Ayný yýl üniversiteyi bitirdi. Daha sonra bir arkadaþýyla birlikte Arbenz hükümetine destek olmak için Guatemala’ya gitti ve burada evlendi. 1954’te Arbenz hükümetinin ABD destekli bir darbeyle düþmesiyle birlikte Meksika’ya gitti. 1956’da Meksika’da Fidel Castro’yla tanýþtý ve Küba devrimine katýlmaya karar verdi.
1956’nýn Aralýk ayýnda Che, Fidel ve 83 arkadaþýyla birlikte Küba’ya gitti ve Sierra’larda gerilla savaþý baþladý. Gerilla birliði içerisinde gerek politik, gerek askeri yetkinliðiyle öne çýktý ve önemli sorumluluklar üstlendi. Küba devriminin baþarýya ulaþmasý için sonsuz emek verdi.
Aralýk 1958’de Che’nin komutanlýðýný yaptýðý gerilla birliði Las Villas’a yürüdü. Burada Batista ordusunu yenerek Santa Clara’ya gitti. 2 Ocak 1959’da gerilla birliklerinin Havana’ya girmesiyle devrim zaferle sonuçlandý.
Devrimden kýsa bir süre sonra Küba vatandaþlýðýna kabul edildi. Devrimden sonra da dýþ siyasetten, ekonomiye, maliyeden, sanayi bakanlýðýna çeþitli üst düzey görevlerde bulundu. Avrupa, Asya, Afrika ülkelerini kapsayan bir gezi yaparak onlardan maddi-manevi destek aldý. ABD emperyalizminin Küba’ya uygulamaya çalýþtýðý ambargoyu etkisizleþtirdi.
1965 yýlýna kadar Küba’daki görevlerini sürdürdü. ‘65’in Eylül’ünde Küba’daki tüm görevlerinden ve Küba vatandaþlýðýndan ayrýldýðýný bildirdi. Vietnam, Kongo, Latin Amerika ülkelerinin çeþitli yerlerini dolaþtý.
1966’da Bolivya’ya gitti. Ancak buradaki gerilla faaliyetleri uzun sürmedi.
Che, bir köyde halka açýk bir konuþma yaptýktan sonra, köy muhtarýnýn birliði ihbar etmesiyle 8 Ekim 1967’de El Yuro’da yüzlerce asker tarafýndan çevrildi. Bacaklarýndan yaralanan Che tutsak düþtü. Higueras köyünün okuluna götürüldü ve sorguya çekildi. Hiçbir soruya cevap vermedi. Ve 9 Ekim’de Bolivya Cumhurbaþkaný’nýn emriyle katledildi.